Conjunctive adverbs, also called adverbial conjunctions, build logical connection between two independent clauses or sentences. Example:
If you’ve too many friends, you can’t find time to build deeper bonds with most of them. Therefore, have few but good friends.
Here, the conjunctive adverb Therefore builds the logical connection of cause and effect between the two sentences: the first sentence being the cause and the second being the effect of that cause. In this post, we’ll cover examples of conjunctive adverbs under nine such logical connections.
Learn more about conjunctive adverbs:
- What are conjunctive adverbs? The resource covers how to punctuate them and how to avoid a common error.
Conjunctive adverbs typically start a sentence and are always followed by a comma in that position. They can, however, occupy other positions as well, where they may or may not be accompanied by comma. In the example sentences that follow, conjunctive adverbs, shown in bold, have been shown mostly in front position but also in other positions.
Also, conjunctive adverbs can be used to connect two independent clauses separated by a semicolon. All the example sentences in this post have been separated by a period, but you can use a semicolon as well.
Before we get into the examples, let’s address a popular acronym on conjunctive adverbs, THAMO.
What does THAMO stand for?
It doesn’t stand for the supervillain Thanos. It’s an acronym for the five popular conjunctive adverbs: Therefore, However, Also, Meanwhile, and Otherwise. That’s it. They’ve been covered under their respective categories.
Here are example sentences of conjunctive adverbs categorized under connections they make.
1. Adding two ideas
They add an idea to the previous sentence. Common conjunctive adverbs that add two ideas are additionally, also, besides, first/second/third, further, furthermore, in addition, incidentally, and moreover.
Better understanding of systems and processes at the new place has helped me get my work done earlier than others. Additionally, it has helped me make new friends.
Adjectives and adverbs in the examples have been underlined. Also, comments that go with examples are in square brackets.
The school’s popularity with tech recruiters is one of the reasons I’m applying there. Besides, its alumni network, especially from engineering schools, will be a lifelong asset for me.
People are generally more productive in the morning for two reasons: first, they’re fresh after night’s sleep; second, there are fewer distractions in the morning.
Susan was a key researcher and data collector for this presentation. Further/Furthermore, she made significant contribution to flow and design of the presentation.
Describe a success you’re most proud of. In addition, describe a failure you learnt most from.
I went to the library to check the new arrivals. Incidentally, I met an old colleague there. [Incidentally is used to add something less important. Here, the writer means that checking the new arrivals was the main purpose of the visit; meeting with the old colleague just happened.]
Knowledge is no less than a treasure as it can bring us wealth. Moreover, knowledge will stay with us for long.
2. Showing time sequence
They show when the events in the two sentences happen with respect to each other. Common conjunctive adverbs that show time relationship are finally, first, henceforth, meanwhile, next, now, then, and thereafter.
I have been wanting to quit the job and take a long travel break. Last week, I finally mustered courage and took the leap.
There is lot to do. Let’s take up the research part first.
Some are coming late to the office despite previous warnings. Henceforth, everyone will register attendance on a biometric device.
It took Jack months to take his business to a sustainable level. Meanwhile, he worked a part-time job to pay bills.
Nadal tossed the towel to the ball boy and proceeded to the service line. Next, he bounced the ball few times with his racket, tossed it up, and served an ace.
You made your bed. Now, you must lie in it.
You work hard, make sacrifices, and reach the level you aspired. But then your level shifts upwards and you stay unhappy.
Degrees may help you land your first job. But, thereafter, your skills and performance take you forward.
They compare ideas in the two sentences. Common conjunctive adverbs that compare two ideas are comparatively, in comparison, likewise, and similarly.
Traveling non-stop for the last 44 years at speed of over 50,000 kph, space probes Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 have long crossed our solar system. Comparatively/In comparison, light will cover the same distance in under a day.
Raw gem needs to be rubbed before its polished, precious version emerges. Likewise, stronger, better version of a man emerges after he goes through challenging times.
While traveling, you enjoy not just the destination but also places enroute. Similarly, in life’s journey don’t be obsessed with the final reward but enjoy little achievements and experiences on the way.
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Step-by-step process. Little grammar. Real-world examples.
4. Contrasting or changing direction
They show contrast between the ideas in the two sentences. Common conjunctive adverbs that show contrast are anyway, conversely, however, in contrast, instead, nonetheless, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, rather, regardless, and still.
We had an interesting conversation. Anyway, I’m leaving now. [Anyway is used for changing the direction and not for contrasting two ideas.]
If you’ve vision or an idea to make positive change and you don’t do anything about it, you’re merely daydreaming. Conversely, if you act without vision or idea, you may unleash something harmful.
He claimed to have won state level championship in chess. However, he struggled to make even basic moves.
He gets up at 9 AM. In contrast, his brother is at work by 8:30 AM.
We should refrain from speculating and jumping to conclusion on why someone behaved in certain way. Instead, we should try to understand the cause of the problem and help the person.
I was ambivalent about pursuing engineering. Nonetheless, following my friends’ lead, I applied to few engineering colleges.
People were selling the company’s stock as they believed it to be overvalued. I bought it, nevertheless.
Software is a dynamic industry with young workforce and modern work culture. Oil & gas, on the contrary, is one of the oldest industries characterized by traditional work culture.
The tortoise walked slowly but without stopping. The hare, on the other hand, took a long rest.
Time of peace and prosperity is not the time to relax and indulge. It is rather time to prepare for unforeseen situations so that time of peace continues.
Odds of success were low. Regardless, he kept trying.
You’ve exams in a week. Still, you’re whiling away time.
5. Showing cause and effect
They show that the first sentence is the cause leading to the effect in the second sentence. Common conjunctive adverbs that show cause and effect are accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, therefore, and thus.
Business leaders constantly try to figure out where to drive the next wave of demand. Accordingly, they innovate.
Some countries were slow to respond to covid-19 outbreak. As a result, millions have been infected in these countries.
Thailand shut down Maya Bay, a cove, for tourists for more than three years. Consequently, corals rejuvenated and marine life diversified in the area.
If you utilize the peace time to get better at war, your adversaries will hesitate in waging a war on you. Hence, the time of peace will stretch.
With low attention spans in the digital world, people don’t have the patience to read unnecessary stuff in emails. Therefore, your communication should be as succinct as possible.
The rookie lion’s impatience blew the pride’s cover. They had to thus go hungry one more day.
6. Providing evidence or example
They connect the first sentence to its evidence in the second. Common conjunctive adverbs that provide examples are for example, for instance, namely, in particular, particularly, and specifically.
Most innovations are inspired from things happening in other industries or even nature. Swimming suit used by professional swimmers, for example, was inspired from sharks.
Wherever possible, build on the work of others to gain leverage. Uber, for instance, used Google Map API to build its App.
Omicron variant of the virus is different from the delta variant. Namely, the former is far more transmissible, its symptoms are markedly different, and it causes milder disease.
He played poorly in today’s match. In particular/Particularly, his first serve percent was below par.
Your performance in the current academic year hasn’t been up to scratch. Specifically, you’ve performed poorly in science, you’re on the borderline in attendance, and you’ve hardly participated in extracurricular activities.
They connect two similar sentences, laying emphasis on the second. Common conjunctive adverbs that lay emphasis are after all, again, certainly, indeed, and in fact.
For this role, the cyber security firm wants a former hacker. After all, an old poacher makes the best gamekeeper.
The company’s revenue grew by a meagre 8 percent in this quarter. Again, the company has failed to meet shareholder’s expectations.
I have attended several career development programs. Certainly, none comes close to Leadership Development Program.
After committing the fraud, the tycoon fled to another country, but the government pulled all levers to get him extradited. Kings indeed have long arms.
The customer complained about the delivery of wrong product to him, but reality turned out to be different. He, in fact, ordered the wrong product because of his failure to read the product description carefully.
8. Showing condition
They connect a condition (in the first sentence) to the result of not meeting it (in the second). Common conjunctive adverb that shows condition is otherwise.
I advised my colleague to neither try to please everyone nor be too indifferent to others in the office. Otherwise, he won’t be respected and be able to build friendly relations.
They summarize an argument you’ve finished in the previous sentence(s). Common conjunctive adverbs that summarize are in other words, in conclusion, to conclude, in sum, and in summary.
Don’t delay something that can be done today. If you do, then tomorrow may stretch to day-after-tomorrow and then to…. In other words, don’t procrastinate.
To conclude/In conclusion/In sum/In summary, we realize that climate change is real and is already among us, but we are not taking any steps to avert earth’s sixth mass extinction event.