In the first two exercises, identify **finite** and **non-finite** clauses. Independent clauses in each sentence are always finite and hence have not been included in the answer. Here is a sample question answered for you:

**Q**. Our organization has consciously followed the policy of building a diverse workforce because we believe that it takes all sorts to make a world.

**A**. Our organization has consciously followed the policy of building a diverse workforce because we believe (that it takes all sorts (to make a world)).

Non-finite/ Finite/ Finite/ Non-finite. The second finite clause, in outer parentheses, is embedded in the first. The second non-finite clause, in inner parentheses, is embedded in second finite clause.

## Exercise 1

1. Seeing a tougher challenge, your belief in your ability will go down, although your ability remains the same in both the situations.

2. Although I’m disappointed with how my business has fared recently, it is at least bringing in steady income, which helps me put food on the table every day.

3. What’s the use of money if you’re unhappy despite loads of it?

4. If you work patiently at something, carrying on despite mistakes and failures on the way, you can achieve the most challenging goals.

5. And why did Marat Safin and Lleyton Hewitt, former world no. 1s, achieve much less, despite being considered more talented than Federer?

6. Top test-takers find ways to brazen tough times out despite hundred reasons to succumb.

7. One can deploy any means, fair or unfair, to win in love and war.

8. I confided to my friend that I made an excuse to get leave from the office, but my manager came to know about it.

9. Because of our obsession with releasing the best possible software, we’ve taken too long.

10. With the children playing in the park, their parents relaxed on the benches nearby.

1. Seeing a tougher challenge, your belief in your ability will go down, although your ability remains the same in both the situations.

Non-finite/ Finite

2. Although I’m disappointed with (how my business has fared recently), it is at least bringing in steady income, which helps me put food on the table every day.

Finite/ Finite/ Finite. The second finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first.

3. What’s the use of money if you’re unhappy despite loads of it?

Finite

4. If you work patiently at something, carrying on despite mistakes and failures on the way, you can achieve the most challenging goals.

Finite/ Non-finite

5. And why did Marat Safin and Lleyton Hewitt, former world no. 1s, achieve much less, despite being considered more talented than Federer?

Non-finite

6. Top test-takers find ways to brazen tough times out despite hundred reasons to succumb.

Non-finite/ Non-finite

7. One can deploy any means, fair or unfair, to win in love and war.

Non-finite

8. I confided to my friend that I made an excuse (to get leave from the office).

Finite/ Non-finite

9. Because of our obsession with releasing the best possible software, we’ve taken too long.

Non-finite. *Because of…* is not a finite clause; it’s a prepositional phrase.

10. With the children playing in the park, their parents relaxed on the benches nearby.

Non-finite. The non-finite clause has a subject of its own (*the children*). Such clauses are often introduced by *with*. In the last example, *with* is a preposition; here it’s not.

## Exercise 2

1. Having finished his work, he decided to take a short break.

2. Even though feeling overwhelmed by the amount of work, she meticulously completes each task.

3. They kept practicing diligently, even if struggling with the difficult routine.

4. Without saving enough money, buying a house will be out of reach.

5. People when drunk speak truth, often unwittingly.

6. I deliberately don’t burn the candle at both ends, and I’m more productive that way.

7. If someone wants to look beautiful in an outfit, the person will happily bear the discomfort that goes with that outfit.

8. You’ll realize that unless you’re focusing intently on something or not sleeping, you’re lost in thoughts.

9. Her homework completed, she went out to meet her friends.

10. We arrived in this world without anything, and we’ll leave without anything.

1. Having finished his work, he decided to take a short break.

Non-finite/ Non-finite

2. Even though feeling overwhelmed by the amount of work, she meticulously completes each task.

Non-finite

3. They kept practicing diligently, even if struggling with the difficult routine.

Non-finite

4. Without saving enough money, buying a house will be out of reach.

Non-finite/ Non-finite

5. People when drunk speak truth, often unwittingly.

Non-finite

6. I deliberately don’t burn the candle at both ends, and I’m more productive that way.

None

7. If someone wants (to look beautiful in an outfit), the person will happily bear the discomfort that goes with that outfit.

Finite/ Non-finite/ Finite. The non-finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first finite clause.

8. You’ll realize that (unless you’re focusing intently on something or not sleeping), you’re lost in thoughts.

Finite/ Finite. The second finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first.

9. Her homework completed, she went out to meet her friends.

Non-finite. The non-finite clause has a subject of its own (*Her homework*). This clause can also be introduced by *with*: *With her homework completed*…

10. We arrived in this world without anything, and we’ll leave without anything.

None

In the next two exercises, identify **finite**, **non-finite**, and **verbless** clauses. Independent clauses in each sentence are always finite and hence have not been included in the answer.

## Exercise 3

1. She rearranged the papers on her desk as if preparing for an important meeting.

2. Unless checked regularly, the equipment may malfunction.

3. Unless sure, don’t make any assumptions.

4. Wanting to avoid traffic, they left early.

5. A small but steady amount is preferable over a larger, though rare, payoff.

6. Having studied hard, he passed the exam with flying colors.

7. Waiting for someone to call him back, he paused at the door as though hesitant.

8. He walked through the park, while captivated by the autumn colors.

9. Hungry after the long day, they ordered a large pizza.

10. He left the room, his hands trembling.

1. She rearranged the papers on her desk as if preparing for an important meeting.

Non-finite

2. Unless checked regularly, the equipment may malfunction.

Non-finite

3. Unless sure, don’t make any assumptions.

Verbless

4. Wanting (to avoid traffic), they left early.

Non-finite/ Non-finite. The second non-finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first.

5. A small but steady amount is preferable over a larger, though rare, payoff.

Verbless

6. Having studied hard, he passed the exam with flying colors.

Non-finite

7. Waiting for someone (to call him back), he paused at the door as though hesitant.

Non-finite/ Non-finite/ Verbless. The second non-finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first.

8. He walked through the park while captivated by the autumn colors.

Non-finite

9. Hungry after the long day, they ordered a large pizza.

Verbless

10. He left the room, his hands trembling.

Non-finite. The non-finite clause has a subject of its own (*his hands*).

## Exercise 4

1. During Covid-19 pandemic, education technology and video conferencing industries flourished because of restrictions on physical learning and interaction, leading to record revenues by several companies in these industries.

2. If available, he will join the discussion, even if he’s not fully prepared.

3. I landed this job by hustling a lot to land an interview and then preparing as best as I could.

4. When in doubt, ask for clarification.

5. We started out with building a product for masses and then we diverted to a niche product that is more likely to work. And now we’ve gone so much deep into this niche product that it’s taking forever to finish.

6. Though incredibly busy with her multiple jobs, she always finds time to volunteer at the local shelter.

7. Some countries impose economic sanctions not just against dictatorial regimes and rogue organizations but also against individuals there, which pinches the key orchestrators.

8. Whether hot or cold, he always drinks his coffee.

9. I’m leaving the organization after five years here.

10. For Martha to finish the project on time, she will have to stay late every day this week.

1. During Covid-19 pandemic, education technology and video conferencing industries flourished because of restrictions on physical learning and interaction, leading to record revenues by several companies in these industries.

Non-finite

2. If available, he will join the discussion, even if he’s not fully prepared.

Verbless/ Finite

3. I landed this job by hustling a lot and then preparing (as best as I could).

Non-finite/ Non-finite/ Finite. The finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the second non-finite clause.

4. When in doubt, ask for clarification.

Verbless

5. We started out with building a product for masses and then we diverted to a niche product that is more likely (to work). And now we’ve gone so much deep into this niche product that it’s taking forever (to finish).

Non-finite/ Finite/ Non-finite/ Finite/ Non-finite. The second non-finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the first finite clause, and the third non-finite clause, in parentheses, is embedded in the second finite clause.

6. Though incredibly busy with her multiple jobs, she always finds time to volunteer at the local shelter.

Verbless/ Non-finite

7. Some countries impose economic sanctions not just against dictatorial regimes and rogue organizations but also against individuals there, which pinches the key orchestrators.

Finite

8. Whether hot or cold, he always drinks his coffee.

Verbless

9. I’m leaving the organization after five years here.

None

10. For Martha to finish the project on time, she will have to stay late every day this week.

Non-finite. The non-finite clause has a subject of its own (*Martha*).